As the last stage of chronic liver diseases, fibrous degeneration occurs in which scars accumulates in the liver as a healing response to liver cell damage. Liver cirrhosis referes to a decrease in liver function as fibrous degeneration progresses.


Jaundice, ascites, abdominal discomfort, lost of appetite, fatigue, nausea, decreased skin tone, weight loss.

[Diagnosis and test]

Cirrhosis can be diagnosed if there are signs of portal hypertension in people who have factors that cause cirrhosis(such as chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, and excessive drinking). If ascites, lover extremity edema, enlarged spleen etc are observed on physical examination or abdominal ultrasound examination, or esophageal varices on endoscopy, it can be determined as a sign or portal hypertension. Although the most definitive diagnosis can be made through a liver biopsy, biopsy for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is very rare.

● physical examination

- Muscle atrophy, spider hemangioma, and palmar erythema may occur.

- Abdominal palpation causes the liver to be small and hard to touch.

● Clinical test

- It shows abnormal levels in tests such as liver function tests, blood clotting tests and albumin levels.

- Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequently observed.

- Jaundice index(bilirubin) rises.

- Elevated kidney-related levels(BUN,Ct)indicate dehydration or hepatic nephroic syndrome.

● Image test

- Ultrasound is used to detect ascites and to differentiate anatomical abnormalities of the liver and bile ducts.

- Computed tomography(CT) can be used to observe the shape of the liver and spleen, liver cirrhosischaracteristics, portal hypertention, etc.

- Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed to check for the presence of esophageal varices.

[Related diseases]

Hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis, hepatic encephalopathy, biliary sclerosis, chronic hepatitis C


Gastroenterology, liver transplantation and hepatobiliary surgery


Cirrhosis of the liver, fibrosis of the liver, Liver cirrhosis

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