Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.[1] It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body.[7][8] Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain.[1]

Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals.[1]The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma.[3] Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.[3] Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies.[4] Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan.[1]

Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer.[1] It may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy.[1]Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary diversion.[1] Typical five-year survival rates in the United States are 77%.[2]

Bladder cancer, as of 2015, affects about 3.4 million people globally with 430,000 new cases a year.[5][9] In 2015 it resulted in 188,000 deaths.[6] Age of onset is most often between 65 and 85 years of age.[2] Males are more often affected than females.[2] In the United States in 2018 81,000 cases and 17,000 deaths are expected making it the 6th most common type of cancer in the region.[2]

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